Studies in sports communication have addressed subjects such as audience reactions to mediated sporting contests; communication between coaches and athletes; media portrayals of athletes based on considerations such as gender, race, and nationality; and the professional routines of sports media practitioners. Methodologically, researchers have used both quantitative and qualitative approaches and have also approached scholarship through frameworks in critical and cultural studies. Although much of the scholarly literature in sports communication appears in peer-reviewed journals, researchers will find certain texts referenced in this article especially useful for surveying the field.
The nature and scope of rhetoric Traditional and modern rhetoric The traditional rhetoric is limited to the insights and terms developed by rhetors, or rhetoricians, in the Classical period of ancient Greece, about the 5th century bc, to teach the art of public speaking to their fellow citizens in the Greek republics and, later, to the children of the wealthy under the Roman Empire.
Public performance was regarded as the highest reach of education proper, and rhetoric was at the centre of the educational process in western Europe for some 2, years. Inevitably, there were minor shifts of emphasis in so long a tradition, and for a long time even letter writing fell within the purview of rhetoric; but it has consistently maintained its emphasis upon creation, upon instructing those wishing to initiate communication with other people.
Modern rhetoric has shifted its focus to the auditor or reader. Literary criticism always borrowed from rhetoric—stylistic terms such as antithesis and metaphor were invented by Classical rhetoricians.
When language became a subject of sustained scholarly concern, it was inevitable that scholars would turn back to Classical theories of rhetoric for help.
But modern rhetoric is far more than a collection of terms. The perspective from which it views a text is different from that of other disciplines. They know that that intention in its formulation is affected by its audience. They know also that the structure of a piece of discourse is a result of its intention.
A concern for audience, for intention, and for structure is, then, the mark of modern rhetoric. It is as involved with the process of interpretation, or analysis, as it is with the process of creation, or genesis.
Rhetorical analysis is actually an analogue of traditional rhetorical genesis: Both view the message as compounded of elements of time and place, motivation and response.
An emphasis on the context automatically makes a rhetorician of the literary critic or interpreter and distinguishes that approach from the other kinds of verbal analysis. Critics who have insisted upon isolating, or abstracting, the literary text from the mind of its creator and from the milieu of its creation have found themselves unable to abstract it from the situation of its reader.
Certain modern critics have joined with rhetoricians in denouncing the folly of all such attempts at abstraction. Modern rhetoricians identify rhetoric more with critical perspective than with artistic product.
They justify expanding their concerns into other literary provinces on the basis of a change in thinking about the nature of human reason. Modern philosophers of the Existentialist and Phenomenologist schools have strongly challenged the assumptions whereby such dualities as knowledge and opinionpersuasion and convictionreason and emotion, rhetoric and poetryand even rhetoric and philosophy have in the past been distinguished.
The old line between the demonstrable and the probable has become blurred. Such modern philosophers use legal battles in a courtroom as basic models of the process every person goes through in acquiring knowledge or opinion.English Grammar.
Why is grammar important? As Jasper Fforde put it, “Ill-fitting grammar are like ill-fitting shoes. You can get used to it for a bit, but then one day your toes fall off and you can't walk to the bathroom.”.
40 (Volume 20, No. 1) March, Introduction by The Editors. SOCIALISM AND DEMOCRACY AT Frank Rosengarten – Looking Back in Order to Look Ahead: Twenty Years of Research and Publishing by the Research Group on Socialism and Democracy Victor Wallis – Socialism and Democracy During the First 20 Years of Socialism and Democracy.
A NEW WORLD ORDER?. The Rhetoric behind College Football Recruiting. KYLE COLTRAIN. Produced in Adele Richardson’s Spring ENC Introduction.
C ollege football is one of America’s most popular sports today. Rhetoric: Rhetoric, the principles of training communicators—those seeking to persuade or inform; in the 20th century it has undergone a shift of emphasis from the speaker or writer to the auditor or reader.
This article deals with rhetoric in both its traditional and its modern forms. For information on. 40 (Volume 20, No. 1) March, Introduction by The Editors. SOCIALISM AND DEMOCRACY AT Frank Rosengarten – Looking Back in Order to Look Ahead: Twenty Years of Research and Publishing by the Research Group on Socialism and Democracy Victor Wallis – Socialism and Democracy During the First 20 Years of Socialism and Democracy.
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