See Article History Beowulf, heroic poem, the highest achievement of Old English literature and the earliest European vernacular epic.
He eradicated all opposition in a pogrom in Winterand ruled thereafter with a combination of Danes and newly promoted English Earls who profited from the Danish Conquest. Edward the Confessor fled to his father-in-law in Normandy. He finally regained the throne in The events of Edward the Confessor dies.
Harold gambles and makes a bid for the Crown, supported by all the magnates of England. William does nothing, despite the so-called oath. Tostig comes to Flanders looking for aid in his projected bid against Harold.
Whether he makes a deal with William is a moot point, but certainly William sees this as his chance to invade. He starts to gather his forces.
These were made up of 'feudal' levies, in which the knight owed service to his lord in return for land. However, William manages to double the projected strength of his forces by promising English land to anyone who turns up. The final strength of his army is c.
He starts constructing a fleet at Dives to transport them all across. Tostig makes an abortive attempt to invade England. Harold calls out the English levy the fyrd to defend against an expected thrust from William, but it never comes.
By 8th September, Harold has to disband the fyrd and let it go home to harvest its crops. Top The eve of conquest 20th September This leaves them free to make their peace with William after Hastings, but need not be seen as premeditated.
Harold responds by scraping together a scratch force made up largely of his own housecarls and personal followers, and racing north, calling up the shire levies as he passes through.
In four days, he has marched miles, and surprised the Norwegian army outside York at Stamford Bridge. Harold offers Tostig his earldom back if he will turn on Harald, but Tostig refuses.
Legend has a lone berserker axeman defending the bridge until the sneaky English paddle under the bridge in a barrel and thrust a spear up through the wooden slats. Having sailed his fleet to St Valery sur Somme, William waits for the wind to be in the right direction.
It changes 2 days after Stamford Bridge, and William's fleet makes landfall at Pevensey completely unopposed. He marches to Hastings - a good harbour from which he can withdraw easily if necessary, and begins building a castle.
While at York, Harold learns of William's landing. He marches back down Ermine Street, stopping to pray at Waltham Abbey which he had founded on the way.
By 12th October, he is back in London and gathering what forces he could to face William. Harold takes up a position blocking the Norman advance to London on Senlac Ridge at the site of Battle with an army of little more than 5, weary and footsore men.
He intends to fight a purely defensive battle, sitting behind the famous Saxon shield wall and letting the Normans break themselves against it. This works well, beating back repeated waves of Norman infantry followed by cavalry.
It works so well in fact that the Breton knights on the Norman left begin to run. Seeing victory in their grasp, the English right charges down the slope after them, exposing themselves to a devastating counter-attack led by William himself.
However, William is unhorsed and a shout goes up that he is dead. Everything hangs in the balance; but William sweeps off his helmet and rises to rally his troops.
Yet the pause had given the English time to regroup, and the Normans batter themselves uselessly against the reformed shield wall.
As the day drags on, the numbers began to tell and the English shield wall begins to crack. Late in the day, Harold takes an arrow in the eye and as his men mill around him, four Norman knights break through and hack him down.
Legend has it that his body was so mutilated that it could not be recognised until it was identified by his devoted mistress, Edith Swan-neck.In a legendary time of heroes, the mighty warrior Beowulf battles the demon Grendel and incurs the hellish wrath of the beast's ruthlessly seductive mother.
Their epic clash forges the timeless. Beowulf: A New Verse Translation [Seamus Heaney] on vetconnexx.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A brilliant and faithful rendering of the Anglo-Saxon epic from the Nobel laureate. Composed toward the end of the first millennium of our era.
Beowulf. Beowulf is considered to be the longest and greatest poem extant in Old English. It has recently been made famous by the Beowulf movie, Beowulf game, Beowulf 3d, and the Beowulf trailer.
Moved Permanently. Redirecting to /m/beowulf. Beowulf, heroic poem, the highest achievement of Old English literature and the earliest European vernacular vetconnexx.com deals with events of the early 6th century and is believed to have been composed between and Although originally untitled, it was later named after the Scandinavian hero Beowulf, whose exploits and character provide its connecting theme.
“Beowulf” is a heroic epic poem written by an unknown author in Old English, some time between the 8th and the 10th Century vetconnexx.com is one of the most important works of Anglo-Saxon literature, and has been the subject of much scholarly study, theory, speculation and discourse.