General information The Moskva River.
The Case of "Chem ljudi zhivy? Jahn Following his "crisis" of the mid's, Lev Tolstoj temporarily abandoned literature and turned his attention to what he considered at that time to be more significant work.
His return to fiction--after several years of theology, ethics, religious tracts, and social criticism--was initiated by and mainly devoted to the creation of a group of brief narratives some 20 in all to which he referred as the narodnye rasskazy.
It is this last category of popular literature that is most often thought relevant to a discussion of Tolstoj's "Stories for the People," but, as will be shown, there are also significant points of contact between them and the literature of and about the people.
In this paper I discuss the complex relationship between the "Stories for the People" and "popular literature," especially works of actual folklore and folklore stylizations. The story of the fallen angel who had to learn the answer to a question posed to him by God in order to regain paradise is found in Talmudic writings, the Koran, and the Arabian Nights.
Among the recorded Russian sources for the story are the Prolog account November 21 "O Sudex Bozhiix ne ispytaemyx," the story of Kitovras, and the legend "Angel," recorded by A.
Afanas'ev in his collection Narodnye russkie legendy. Shchegelenok, performed for Tolstoj in July, The religious and "bookish" character of many of his legends also carried over into his epic songs.
Impressed both by his ability as a storyteller and by his piety, he invited Shchgelenok to visit him at Jasnaja Poljana.
There, Tolstoj prevailed upon him to recite several of the stories in his repertory. Tolstoj showed greatest interest in the religious legends.
A version of the story taken down from Shchegelenok's recitation by a priest of the 0lonec region, however, has been preserved: They are rather brief and are cited here in full.
Click here to see. In this respect, the story may be said to be an imperfect record of actual folklore. However, Tolstoj also changed much. In particular, he added depth to the characters, giving them names and characteristic traits: The desire for verisimilitude, which is also suggested by the addition of details of dress, the house, and the cobbler's trade, indicates that the story also belongs to the category of works about the common people.
Shchegelenok's version as reflected in Tolstoj's notes contained only the episodes of the wealthy man's shoes and the two girls and has the angel smiling his mysterious smile only twice. Tolstoj added considerable detail to the episode of the two girls and a third episode involving the cobbler's wife.
Thus, the story is also in some ways a folkloric stylization. He increased the didactic burden of the story by including the motif not present in Shchegelenok's version of God's questions and the angel's explanation of the answers. To these bases are added stylistic colorations ranging from popular to Biblical, but in any case avoiding the standard literary norm.
These two elements in the story's language were noted by Tolstoj's contemporaries, one of whom averred that the language of Tolstoj's art had distinctively improved thanks to its new-found "forceful and Biblical" simplicity. The same reviewer continues: He does not copy the peasant phrase, but he is deeply conscious of its spirit and its internal structure.
He not only speaks, but even thinks, in the popular way.
With the exception of the epigraph quotations from the New Testamentall of the language in the story is attributable to one of three sources: The laconic quality of the speech of these characters is present throughout the story and is characteristic also of the language of the narrator and of the angel.
This laconicism depends upon continuous use of the basic pattern of the simple sentence. Adjectives and adjectival expressions are rare. A good example from the dialogue is the following speech of Semen: Colloquial vocabulary and even prostorech'e abound in the speech of these characters.A War and Peace for our time Read more 3 The novel has a particular technical feature; it passes from mind to mind, showing us the world as a consciousness moves through it.
Consciousness, Memory, and History in Tolstoy’s War and Peace. Home Articles Consciousness, From Method to Meaning in “War and Peace He is author and editor of several books and also is the editor of VoegelinView (present) and editor of Lexington Books series Politics, Literature, and Film (present).
in Leo Tolstoys "War and Peace" is one of the immortal achievements of television theater production, could have pulled this putrescent soap opera from the gas chamber of its own despair.
meaning ol the l'asso\ er Bui il is fruitless to leach ol hers in the same way. In one of his greatest novels, “War and Peace” (), Tolstoy insists that history is propelled forward not by the actions of individual leaders but by the random alignment of events and. WAR AND PEACE: Leo Tolstoy and Me stoy Part 1: The release of War and Peace was the first English-language film version of the novel War and Peace by the Russian novelist and short-story writer, essayist and playwright Leo Tolstoy().
(The figure of Platon Karataev [from War and Peace ] also served him as a model.) Also, Shchegelenok was by trade a cobbler, and this trade has an especially .